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George Brown BAILEY
Male 1833 - 1895

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George Brown Bailey: Internments

The Internments of George Brown Bailey in the Utah Penitentiary
1886 and 1898

Compiled By Gary E. Stay 1984

The Internments of George Brown Bailey in the Utah Penitentiary
1886 and 1898

Compiled By Gary E. Stay 1984


Several events led to the compilation of this period in the life of George Brown Bailey. The Bailey family was much discussed during my childhood. My maternal Grandmother, Alice Elmina Bailey Stay, often told of events that kindled an interest in her early childhood. My father, Hobert Bailey Stay, and my second son, Carl Bailey Stay, carry the family heritage through their given names. I became interested in the prison period when Xerox copies of the surviving letters were given me. Asking family members where the originals were, I found that my father had been given them, and they now have been passed on to me. Thus, I found I held a direct link to the period, with a number of unanswered questions being raised from studying these letters. It is these questions that led me to begin a quest which has turned out to be an ideal way to spend the evenings while on business trips to Salt Lake City and Provo.

Elsie, George's second wife has also caught my attention. The more I studied the period and the circumstances surrounding her relationship with George and the United States Government representatives, the more I realized that she was a victim of unjust laws that in all probability forced her into a position of leaving her family and starting fresh with a new life. It is not the purpose of this dissertation to judge her actions, but only to attempt to bring to this generation those facts that may lead to a better understanding of her position.

I have also found that not a great deal has been written of this phase of L.D.S. Church History. For some reason the human side of prison life has not been thoroughly compiled. Numerous documents have survived: diaries, newspaper stories, a few short articles are recorded. Several masters dissertations and histories such as The "Americanization" of Utah for Statehood have delved into the subject. The fact that the cohabs had substantial time on their hands, led to the many unpublished works available. The humor is unbelievable, the social structre reached a high degree of sophistication, which in turn led to a vast array of poetry and a number of documented programs bringing to light a musical talent that could not be matched today. It is awonder to me that someone has not attempted to take advantage of this fruitful period and produce a musical depicting life in the Utah penitentiary. George clearly was deeply involved in this high level cultural exchange. His musical talents are a family legacy that should not be forgotten.

Finally, during the summer of 1982, I attended my first Bailey Family Reunion and found myself elected to the position of president of the 1984 event. I shall be forever grateful to my Aunt Lois Stay Tremelling for the finger she pointed which has led to my many hours of pleasure in finding more about my Bailey heritage.

Gary E. Stay

Pocatello, Idaho 1984

*A note regarding spelling, punctuation and verbage; The original documents have been quoted directly from the source without changes or corrections.



George Brown Bailey of Mill Creek, Utah, was interned twice in the Utah Penitentiary for participating in the tenent of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, the principle of the plurality of wives. The fact that George spent a full year of his life incarcerated for what he termed "conscience sake" is likely of interest to those of his posterity. This narrative is an account of the conditions within the prison as well as personal experiences and activities that led up to and took place during his seven and five month incarcerations.

A review of the legal manner in which the United States Government prosecuted and sent to prison those brethren who practiced polygamy is of importance in that those interned felt they had done nothing wrong except for living with their wives and taking care of their children. "With the passage of the Edmunds Act, some men gave up plural marriage and abandoned their wives, much to the scorn of staunch Mormons" including George Bailey. ---"As a rule, men living the law of plural marriage were honorable men who loved their families and rather than break the covenants they had made before God and forsake their families, they went to prison."[1]

In 1882, the Congress of The United States passed the Edmunds Act. This law was the first of two laws that were specifically enacted and directed against the Mormons practicing plural marriage to make illegal the act of cohabiting, (living with) more than one wife. The Edmunds law "defined polygamy as a crime---every person who has a husband or wife living---who here after marries another, whether married or single, and any man who simultaneously, or on the same day, marries more than one woman---is guilty of polygamy. The penality: $500.00 fine or five years imprisonment, or both.[2] The law defined polygamous living as "unlawfull cohabitation" making it a misdemeanor, and punishable by fine not to exceed $300.00, and by imprisonment not to exceed six months, or by both fine and imprisonment at the discretion of the court.[3] This law was specifically enacted to do away with the practice of polygamy in Utah by those of the Mormon faith.

The fervor against the Mormons was extraordinary, in the Eastern United States citizen groups and organized religious denominations mobilized against the Mormons; in 1856 polygamy was coupled with slavery as the "Twin Relics of Barbarism" and was singled out for attack by the Republican Party. Gentile opposition to plural marriage focused on issues of a religious, moral, and social nature. The Mormon polygamist lived in what seemed to be a deliberate affront to traditional monogamous standards. Although the question of the morality of the marriage union itself became the focal point of debate and discussion, beneath the surface lay other potentially inflammatory issues among which the fear of limitless reproduction of potential polygamists was paramount. [4]

George Bailey married Elsie Maria Andrews on February 8, 1868 some fourteen years prior to the passage of the Edmunds act. It was felt by George and the brethren of the Church that "the law could not be retroactive, and as there had been no law on the subject of cohabiting with polygamous wives until the passage of the Edmunds Act of 1882, ---that the brethren were plainly within the truth---that such relations as---were---contracted and maintained in Utah were not illegal---not in defiance of, or in violation of, the laws of Congress."[5]

Sentiment throughout the country was bitter towards those in Utah such as George who had more than one wife. Four Presidents; Hayes, Garfield, Arthur and Cleveland all used the anit-Mormon position in their political platforms. When viewed in light of todays civil rights and civil liberty values, it is difficult for one to believe the injustices of the legal system of the time. For example: the Edmunds Law excluded from jury service any person living in polygamy or any who believed it right, which in effect prohibited trial by jury in areas where Mormons were a majority. (see History of The Church, Judge Black, Vol. 6, page 44). Lorenzo Snow had been arrested for unlawfull cohabitation on the evidence that he and his wife were observed walking down a Salt Lake City street together. Since both were living and since they were together, one court ruled, by a clever display of semantics, that they were living together. [6] George Q. Cannon, although elected by a landslide victory as the territorial representative to Congress for a second term, was not seated nor allowed to function due to his marriage practices. The Law also went so far as to provide "that no polygamist, bigamist or any person cohabiting with more than one woman, and no woman cohabiting with any of the persons described as aforesaid in this section---shall be entitled to vote at any election." [7] A similar law was also enacted in the area now Idaho, and was only repealed in 1982.

The Edmunds-Tucker Act of 1882 specified that the products of polygamist unions, were decared illegitimate. Judge Charles S. Zane, (the judge who sentenced G. B. Bailey in 1886), took exceptional liberties in defining the lawas it referred to cohabiting, "that an indictment might be found for any portion of the time, within the three years past---in which the offense was proven to have been committed whether it be a year, a month or a week."[8] The law was further perverted when Judge O. W. Powers (Odgen) ruled "to constitute the offense, ---it is not necessary that it be shown that the parties indulge in sexual intercourse", thus a man could be held guilty, "when --- to all outward appearances is living or associating with more than one woman as his wife."[9] The courts dictated during this period that nothing but absolute abandonment could meet the requirements of the law as interpreted by the Federal Courts. We would direct the reader to an extensive and thorough history of the period found in the "History of The Church", B. H. Roberts, Vol 6, for an indepth review of the injustices of the vested authorities in administering the Edmunds Act of 1882 and the Edmunds-Tucker Act passed in 1887 that effected G. B. Bailey's second internment. (We should note that B. H. Roberts' history of the period is accurate and somewhat viehiement, after several years in the underground and an extensive mission to England away from his family, he gave himself up and was interned just one week following George's final release.)

The Bailey family history records that Brigham Young personally requested the Bailey family to take in and care for a 13 year old immigrant girl by the name of Elsie Maria Andrews to assist in caring for the large Bailey family. Elsie had joined the Church in Denmark and came to this country by herself and walked across the plains with one of the hand cart companies. On February 8, 1868, George "took unto himself a plural wife", the then 16 year old Elsie. George had just turned 35 years of age, thus an age span difference of nineteen years existed between the pair. The history further explains that Elsie was "happy about this, because all the men had more than one wife in their community". She said further---"They had bigger houses and more dishes." (note: although the history indicates Elsie came across the plains with one of the hand cart companies, research leads us to believe otherwise, she apparently walked besides a wagon train of the dates indicated).

George, Elizabeth (his first wife), and Elsie lived in harmony for the next eighteen years enduring hardships and many experiences including the death of two of Elsie's children and five of Elizabeth's from diptheria. George had been a school teacher prior to coming to America as well as a cabinet maker. He built a large (for the time) home with a wing for each of his wives. During the "raids" by the United States Marshals, this home was a haven for "Many plural wives who found shelter there when they were "under cover". The cupboard under the stairway was equipped to hide a frightened wife while the "Feds" made their hasty check of the premises."[10]

George had purchased two parcels of land on Thirteenth East, just south of the present 33rd South on the banks of Mill Creek. "In the early days of Utah the upper bench country east of Highland Drive was considered unfit for cultivation, but later its special adaptation for raising fruit and lucere was discovered, and the excellent quality of the garden crops was and is known all over the valley."[11] The property George had purchased was just below the bench described. It was on this rich soil, that George and his family planted and cultivated a peach orchard. The peach orchard began to bear fruit in 1869, "so from then on the financial problems of the home were not so difficult." George and his family were considered active participants in the events of the time and looked upon themselves as "Millcreekers". They domesticated a wild swarm of bees and perhaps developed the first apiary in the valley which eventually brought in thousands of dollars to the family. George was known throughout the valley as "Bailey the Beeman".

Elizabeth, George and the older boys spent their time working with the bees and the fruit, while Elsie took charge of the housework and the care of the small children. Everything was peace and harmony and the two women lived in the same house like a mother and daughter. It was during this period that upon the urging of Elizabeth, George was sealed to four other women who were deceased, which was a custom of the time. They were Elizabeth Gunter, a cousin of Elizabeths, born Nov. 26, 1834, died Feb. 24, 1851 and sealed to him in 1876, the other women sealed at this time with Elizabeth as proxey, were Elizabeth Farley, Elizabeth Watts and Mary Watts. From these sealings we can be assured that Elizabeth and George both subscribed to the principle of the plurality of wives which was deeply ingrained within their religious values.

George served as the Mill Creek Ward Clerk for a number of years except for the two stints in the Pen. Many interesting events of the period are recorded in the Ward records, most in the hand of George himself. The records can be viewed on microfilm located in the Church Historians Office, where one can perceive in some detail through his beautiful Spencerian scroll, the events and accounts of the Ward during this period.

In his capacity as Ward Clerk, it is noted that many of the General Authorities visited the Ward so he had an opportunity to become personally acquainted with them. It is interesting to view the many entries concerning the Bailey family, an example:

"The amalgamated school first met in Mill Creek meeting house in 1869. George Heutson and George B. Bailey superintended the school."

Also, many of the contributions in cash and kind are recorded in his hand. It is from these records that we surmise that George was considered a community leader active in the Church affairs and those many other community activities that brought him into the limelight and thus a target for the Marshals.

It is probable that because of the close proximity to Salt Lake, the brethern of Mill Creek were primary targets for the United States Marshals who were charged with the responsibility of going after the polygamists. The Mill Creek Ward Priesthood leadership, most of whom were participants in the belief of plural marriage were among the early group to be caught, tried, convicted and sentenced.



The first arrest of George is recorded in the Ward History compiled by Andrew Jenson, a member of the Mill Creek Ward and served for many years as the L.D.S. Church Historian, the history states:

"In 1886, the anti-polygamy prosecutions were continued, and on April 19, 1886, George B. Bailey, Jens Hansen and Andrew Jensen were arrested on a charge of unlawful cohabita|tion. After trial Brother Bailey was sentenced May 10, to six months' imprisonment in the Utah Penitentiary and to pay a fine of $300.00. After serving his time in prison he was discharged Nov. 10, 1886." (History of the Mill Creek Ward, Church Historians office)

The actual court records have recently been located in the archives of the Federal Center in Denver, Colorado. These records shed further light on this arrest, trial and conviction. The actual charge or indictment reads as follows:

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Territory of Utah. At a stated term of the District Court of the Third Judicial District, in and for the Territory of Utah, begun and holden in the City of Salt Lake within and for the District and territory aforesaid, on the 12th day of April A. D. 1886 and continued by adjournment to and including the 19th day of April A. D. 1886


The Grand Jurors of the United States of America, within and for the district aforesaid, in the Territory aforesaid, being duly impanelled and sworn, on their oaths do find and present that George B. Bailey late of said district, in the Territory aforesaid, heretofore, to-wit: on the First day of May in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hurdred and eighty-three at the County of Salt Lake in the said district, Territory aforsaid, and within the jurisdiction of this court, and on divers days thereafter and continuously from the day and date last appears and until the 7th day of April A.D. 1886 at the County aforesaid did unlawfully live and cohabit with more than one woman namely with one Elsa Maria Anderson Bailey and with one Elizabeth Bailey and that during all the period afores and at the County aforesaid he, the said George B. Bailey did unlawfully claim, live and cohabit with both of said women as his wives against the form of the statute of the said United States in such case made and provided, and against the peace and dignity of the same.

Chas. A. Tewksburry
Forman of Grand Jury

W. H. Dickson
U. S. District Attorney.

The warrant for his arrest was then issued on the 19th of April with bail being set at $1,500. A U. S. Marshal, E. A. Ireland signed the warrant on the 23rd indicating that a depuity one A. Tandercook took George into custody.

Another court document indicates that on the 24th, a plea of not guilty was tendered by George with a trial set for the first of May. The trial is recorded being held on the first with a verdict of guilty being rendered. The sentence was to start on the tenth day of May, 1886.

It is interesting to note that George spent seven months not six as the sentence dictated. The family history states that he was a strong willed man and rather than pay the fine, he spent an extra month in prison.

George has not left us with a description of his actual trial and trip to the prison, however, Stanley Taylor who with George and Andrew Jensen were sentenced and sent to the prison on the same day gives us an account of what took place.

May 10th, 10 a.m.:

"He" (Chief Justice Zane), "imposed the full penalty of the law, six months imprisonment, a fine of $300.00 and cost of suit, I to stand committed until fine and cost are paid. George B. Bailey and Andrew Jensen followed with a similar result after which we were ushered into the Marshal's office and there kept waiting upwards of six hours for the penitentiary team to come.- -

Tuesday, May 11th

Stanley Taylors account continues: "I was a prisoner, and there and then it began to dawn on my mind that the greatest blessing given to man, Liberty, had been taken from me by unconstitutional law. On reaching the penitentiary andwhile waiting a few moments before being taken inside, we had supper and was searched, but had nothing on me. When I was taken within the penitentiary I received a hearty greeting from the brethren, some of whom I had not seen for many years. When time came for counting the prisoners into the bunk house I fell into line among those who occupied No.3, the newest bunk house and was permitted to enter - - -During the evening, a regular jollification was held in the bunk house and I was called upon to sing a song, dance a jig, or make a speech." (from the life of Stanley Taylor, Church historians office MSD 6704)

The United States Government kept paid spotters and spies to report on the Mormons guilty of living in polygamy. Between 1882 and 1890, over 1,100 brethren and a few women were sent to prison for failure to discard their plural wives and families.[12] It is probable that George, like all who were tried at the time, was asked during his trial and also by the Governor of the territory to discard the practice. Representative George Curtis published a letter written to the United States Secretary of Interior regarding the affairs of Utah polygamy and cohabitation quoting Governor West, the Territorial Governor of Utah:

"Seven days after assuming office in the territory, on the 13th day of May, after consultation with Chief Justice Zane and District Attorney Dickson, they approving, I visited the Penitentiary where about 50 of those convicted under the law were imprisoned and proposed to all who would promise to obey the laws in the future, our united efforts to secure from the President their pardon. Not one of them availed himself of this tender but sent me a respectfully worded communication signed by all declining to do so.

"The visit of the Governor was just a day or so after George arrived in the pen, in effect, Governor West requested the brethren to forsake their wives all except the first, and denounce the practice. This was six years prior to the Manifesto. George was one of the cohabs who signed the respectfully worded communication. During the visit of the Governor, a famous debate took place between him and Apostle Lorenzo Snow which was recorded verbatim by a court recorder and was printed in full by the Deseret News. Snow was soon to become the President of the Quorum of the Twelve and later the fifth President of the Church. He was domiciled in bunkhouse number 3 along with George. Diaries of the period indicate that all of the brethren imprisoned at the time had opportunity to have a personal acquaintance with Elder Snow.

May 24th, 1886

Addressed to his excellency Caleb W. West, Governor of Utah

On the 13th instent you honored the inmates of the penitentary with a visit, and offered to intercede in the pardon of all those enduring imprisonment under the Edmunds Law, if they would but promise obedience to it in the future as interpreted by the court. Gratitude for the interest manifested in our behalf, claims from us a reply. We trust, however, that this will not be construed into defiance, as our silence has allready been, We have no desire to occupy a defient attitude towards the Government or to be in conflict with the Nation's law

"We have never been even accused of violating any other law than the one under which we were convicted, and that was enacted purposely to oppose a tenent of our religion.

"We conscientiously believe in the doctrine of plural marriage and have practiced it from a firm conviction of its being a devine requirement

"Of the fourty-nine elders of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints now imprisoned in the penitentiary for alleged violation of the Edmunds Law, all but four had plural wives from its passage to 35 years prior here to, we were united to our wives for time and eternity by the most sacred covenants and in many instances numerous children have been born as a result of our union who are endeared to us by the strongest parental ties.

"What the promise asked of us implied you declined to explain, just as the courts have done when appeals have been made for an explicit and permanent definition of what must be done to comply with the law.

"The rulings of the courts under this law have been too varied and conflicting, hither-to-fore, for us to know what may be the future interpretations.

"The simple status of plural marriage is now made under the law, materialevidence in securing conviction for unlawful cohabitation, thus independent of our acts, ruthlessly trespassing upon the sacred domain of religious belief.

"So far as compliance with your proposition requires the sacrifice of honor and manhood, repudiation of our wives and children, the violation of sacred covenants, heaven forbid we should be guilty of such perfidy; perpetual imprisonment with which we are threatened of even death itself would be preferable".

"Our wives desire no seperation from us and were we to comply with your request, they would regard our action as most cruel, inhumane and monstrous our children would blush with shame, and we would deserve the scorn and contempt of all just and honorable men.

"The proposition you made though prompted doubtless by a kind feeling, was not new, for we could all avoid imprisonment by making the same promise to the courts, in fact, the penalties we are now enduring are for diclining to promise rather than for acts committed in the past.

"Had you offered us unconditional amnesty, it would have been gladly accepted; But dearly as we prize the great boon of liberty, we can not afford to obtain it by proving untrue to our conscience, our religion and God.

"As loyal citizens of this great Republic whose constitution we revere, we not only ask for, but claim our rights as free men and if from local nor national authority we are to receive equity and mercy, we will make our appeal to the Great Ariberiter of all human interest who in due time will grant us the justice hither to denied.

"That you may, as the Governor of our afflicted territory, aid us in securing every right to which loyal citizens are entitled and find happiness in so doing, we will ever pray.

As witnessed our hands, signed - - - -

Signitures of some of the individuals (53 in all) Lorenzo Snow, Rudger Clawson, Amos Maycock, William G. Saunders, George B. Bailey, James O. Poulsen, Herbert J. Foulger, H. Dinwoody, James Moyle, Melon H. Tracy, George C. Lambert, are but to name a few.

"The Mormon men living the law were generally men of moral integrity and courage and were warned by the people of the community when the Marshals were to serve them with a summons. They often hid themselves with the knowledge that if the Marshal could not find them then he could not serve them with a summons."[13] Elsie is recorded as making an extended visit to Salina in southern Utah for just this reason. The family history indicates that Elsie with a hooped skirt attempted to climb up into the attic of the home and her large skirt would not go through the opening, she slipped the skirt and it was left on the floor when the Marshals visited the premises. It is also told that on another occasion Elsie climbed out an upstairs window and along a ledge to escape capture.

Joseph Smith Black recorded in his diary how the Marshals would apprehend the brethern.

"They would designate a certain number of the brethren that they desired to capture and three or four of them would come into town during the night and lie in wait at the house of some traitor. The people reposing in peaceful slumber, not conscious of any danger being near, and perchance the husband and father being weary of camping out would have repaired home for a good night's rest to enjoy the society of their loved ones; when all was quiet, during the small hours in the morning, a loud rap would be heard at the door. The family would spring from their beds and in sudden tones whisper the word, "Marshals". Perchance a louder and harsher knock would follow and one of the family would ask, "who is there?" and they would say "Marshals. Open the door or we will bunt it down." and if the father happened to be in the house hewould meet them with a light at the door and admit them, and with cocked evolvers they would demand his surrender. Thus, by demons in human shape, he would be dragged away to some pretended court. In case the husband was not at home, the wife, with fear, would admit them to the house and sometimes by threats and abusive language, she would be compelled to show them through the house, while the children would nestle close together in their beds, being overcome with fright and anxiety for the safety of their father and protector ---

Generally, on such occasions, the word of alarm would soon spread and lights would glitter in all parts of the town, and perchance if the raid had been successful the news would soon be conveyed from house to house of the capture of some of the most respecfull citizens. On such occasions excitement would generally run high and many would be the expressions of indignation, and were it not for wise consel of the more matured minds, many of these raids would have ended in a scene of blood, as it was hard to see fathers, relatives and friends taken away in such a manner." [14]

It is probable that George was sought out in the above manner for his third arrest. His first apprehension, on April 1, 1886 (April Fools Day), took place early in the morning and is recorded in the family history.

"A U. S. Marshal (most likely Depuity A. Tandercook), came to the door and asked for George B. Bailey. He was still in bed and Reuben, his son, called him. When he appeared he asked the Marshal if he might have breakfast before going to the city. The Marshal gave permission. Before sitting down to eat, George told the Marshal it was the custom in his home to have family prayer, and the Marshal was invited to join them in these words, "get down on your marrow bones, it won't hurt you." After breakfast, George was taken to Salt Lake City for trial - - the charge "unlawfull Cohabitation; one indictment; plea of not guilty; regular trial; sentenced May 10th, 1886, by Judge Zane; term six months fine $300.00 and costs."[15] From another source costs are listed at $50.00.

Thus on May 10th, 1886, George entered the United States Penitentiary in Salt Lake City for the first time. A detailed description of the prison during this period is found in a book written in prison by a cellmate of George, John Nicholson, a copy of the 1886 text is enclosed in the appendix.

As stated earlier, George had the opportunity during his trial to avoid internment by renouncing his marriage to Elsie by taking what was known as the "Edmunds Oath" and dividing up his property and living and associating with Elizabeth only. This was a legal device by which he could have avoided the next seven months in the Pen. According to his autograph book and the letter written at the time, he sincerely believed that his constitutional rights had been infringed upon and it is likely he took the position of the other "Cohabs", considered it a privilege to spend time in the Pen for his deep convictions.

From his letters, and from accounts of the time conditions within the Pen were not the best. The prison was old, not being built to provide the best accommodations. It is noteworthy that George did not convey to those at home of the deprivations and hardships that existed. The time of year helped in that he did not have to endure the cold winter as he did following his second internment. Other than concerns for his health and the food served at "Uncle Sams' Hotel", his main complaint was his separation from family. However, during this period prior to the construction of the new brick cell blocks available for occupancy during his second visit, life was difficult at best. Melvin Bashore quotes from diaries in the Utah Historical Quarterly --- "The most bothersome hindrance to a good night's rest was pesky bed bugs. One man suggested renaming his bunkhouse the "Bug House". Clawson said "a man could write his name with blood of bugs by pressing his finger against them as they crawled along the wall --- newly whitewashed walls soon told an awful tale of blood and carnage." Harvey Cluff believed he had made his bed in the nest of a perfect "bed bug incubator." He wrote that the "spaces between the planks could not be any more cozilly arranged for their propagation." He theorized that this was a form of tithing that the Government collected in return for board and room given to the "naughty polygamists".[16]

An account from the Deseret Evening News gives a glimpse into the festivities held on the Fourth of July, 1886. The account tells of the days activities which included a program presented by the Salt Lake Eighth Ward, and a fancy meal made possible by some of the leading citizens of Salt Lake. Although George is not mentioned in the newspaper account, it is likely that he was a participant in the musical renditions.

"---A concert for which a rather elaborate program consisting of 28 numbers had been arranged. A rude stage made up of the heavy tables from which we eat was arranged in one end of the dinning room and a calico drop curtain to work on a sliding priciple soon improvised with all the chairs and benches about the place were called into requisition upon which to set the auditors. ----- our own program was resumed this consisted of an overture, glee, recitations, banjo solo, cornet solo, duet, comic songs, original poem, musical selections, hornpipe dance, character songs, Marseillaise hymn etc., all of which were endered in good style, the performance demonstrated the fact that there was a great deal of musical talent among the 150 men here incarcerated, and it was displayed to good advantage, The days amusements concluded with foot racing, hurdle jumping, sack racing and quoit pitching matches, all of which passed off pleasantly not a jar or ill feeling occurring throughout the day".

We have only one letter written by George during this period. It is written to Elsie and gives us insight into the man and conditions within the prison. Five letters have survived, this one and four being written during the second trip to the Pen. The originals of these letters are in posession of Gary Stay. The letter of July 26th 1886 is as follows:

As one reads the letter, a number of phrases and points are worth commenting on:

1. This letter was written to Elsie on the 25th of July the day after the 24th Pioneer Day.

2. Elsie and her children, i.e. Heber John, 8 years old, Victoria, 6, William Thomas, 4, and it is possible that Alice Elmina, age 9 years 4 months, Elizabeth's youngest child may have been in the group. It is also possible that Jessie Henry, 1 year 4 months may have been carried in by one of the older children, or he could have stayed out in the carriage with his mother. They were on their way from Mill Creek to the city to "see the sights", all the events taking place during the 24th celebration. At this time, the rules of the prison permitted visitors only one day per month and no pass was available on a special basis. However, the guards must have let the children in to see Dad. The rules for "Government of convicts" of this period are recorded in J.C.L. Brienholt's personal journal ---"Permission to see members of the family on first Thursdays of each month.

3. The guard made an exception to allow the little children "in" to give him their presents.

4. "Prisoner for his religion", this is one of many expressionsconcerning his feelings of unfair treatment by the courts.

5-6. What kind of presents? Something they had made? Or Food?

7. Wm. G. N. Dow, Warden --- it appears that he was writing this part of the letter for the eyes of Dow. George moves his prose into the first person to express his thanks and appreciation,. The rules indicate that censorship was practiced. "All letters written or received, must first be examined at the Wardens, under the direction of the Warden before being sent or delivered". Scattered throughout the five letters are messages to the censor, he used this means to convey a number of concepts.

8. "So cheer up", he must have been very concerned about conditions at home and the feelings of his family and did not wish to alarm them with examples of the deprivation he was experiencing.

9. George goes into some detail here to describe the methods of construction and dimensions of the home that Elizabeth and Elsie were to build on the lower acreage they had purchased some years prior. The purpose for the second home was to separate the two families. For legal reasons, Elsie could not remain in the large house following his internment. It was never clearly defined by the law just what relations could exist between a man and his plural wives after a man was released. George Q. Cannon and the legal counsel for the Church went to considerable effort to determine just what constituted the law. The courts were indiscriminant and convicted men for any hint of association with the wives and children of the additional marriages.

10. "The purse is all one", cryptic message for the wives to pool all monies for the purpose of building the second home.

11. George was to use his skills learned as an apprentice to be a cabinet maker when a young man in England, to finish the small house when he got out.

12. Adobies: most of the homes built during this period were made from adobies, sun baked bricks made from local clay laced with straw to hold them together. This type of construction provided a warm dwelling in the winter and a cool one in the summer. They would later cover the adobies with wood siding to keep them from weathering. Many of these structures from this period are still in use in the area.

13. Ann Davis Young - Elizabeth's mother lived with the family until her death. She was widowed and lived many years after this period. Tender words with loving prose for his mother-in-law.

14. Caroline - his sister-in-law, Caroline Young McEvoy.

15. "I am not ashamed" - "As the resident clientle became predominantly Mormon, a sentence in the Pen conferred honor and status." "Serving a prison sentence had all the aura and honor of a mission". The common bond of brotherhood in the Church and common sacrifice brought these men together in their trials. To a man they believed that their Constitutional rights were being infringed upon."[17] It would appear however, that at this time George was not entirely sure of this "honor" During his second visit to the Pen, this appeared to be true.

Little else is recorded of George's first internment in the family records. However we find a number of referencs to him in reading the journals of the 50 brethern in during this period. Rudger Clawson records the fact that George and two others came took residency in this way in his diary: "Br. Jensen was assigned to #2 & Bros. Taylor & Bailey to #3. During the evening we sang How Firm a Foundation, Come Come Ye Saints, Arise O Glorous Zion thou Joy of Latter Days, etc. etc. A good spirit was manifest, the two bretheren each sang a song and were received as full members. Bro. Rudger Clawson gave his class their second lesson in double entry bookeeping".[18] Number 3 was the newer bunkhouse that most of the Cohabs were domiciled in. It was the rules of the group that every new convict assigned to the bunkhouse must perform some sort of song or recitation in order to become full members.

George is also mentined in Herbert J. Foulger's diary with these entries: "Monday, May, 31 1886, Decoration day. Bro George B. Bailey's folks sent him a hansom boquet, quite a number of visitors on the wall during the day." Listed on the 24th of July program. "Song, "An Earthquake seems to shake the Globe" by Bro. George B. Bailey". "August 25th, speech by George B. Bailey". "August 28, song - "I would not die in springtime" Geo. B. Bailey".[19] We are sure that if one took the time to research all the surviving journals of the time many other references to George would be found. He must have been well thought of and many comments would be made about his singing abilities and talents.

Although the social system was not as well developed in the prison during this period as it was during his second stay, all was not without some moments of relaxation and mirth. Foulgers diary records the following. "May 28th 1886, It was certainly quite amuseing last evening to see some of the prisoners dancing. The band consisted of one violin played by Bro. N. J. Bates, a small organ played by Bro. John Bowdin, cornet by Bro. Wm. Grant and banjo by Frank Tidwell. They indulged in waltzing and quadrille dancing. It was quite a novel sight. I never saw dancers wear such heavy jewelery before. It was the height of extravagance. The chain was worn on the ancle with a pendant attached. The one who was honored to dance with those who wore this jewelery were privelegd (were compelled to carry the pendant which would only weigh about 20 pounds, vulgarly called a slug) but they seemed to enjoy it and I must confess that I quite enjoyed the sight".[20]

After his seven month stay, George returned to his routine life at Mill Creek. Elsie was then residing in the new, but not as nice and not so big home that was built by the two wives during his absence. We are not sure as to the details of the building and construction, but the two women must have had assistance from the Ward members.



Late in 1887, a year after being released, Elsie was again with child. Apparently this was all that was needed for the Marshals to do their work. The Mill Creek Ward History indicates that:

"Again in 1888 Mill Creek received attention from the U. S. Deputy Marshals, who, on Jan. 13, arrested George B. Bailey on a charge of unlawful cohabitation. He had already served one term in the Utah Penitentiary accused of the same "crime". Somehow he avoided imprisonment from his second arrest."[21]

John Isreal was born just eight days later. Elsie must have hid out to have her baby. Shortly after this in the spring of 1888 she went to Salina as is stated in her history, so as not to testify and be arrained by the U. S. Marshals. It appears that because they could not find Elsie the Marshals were without evidence for the trial; thus he "avoided imprisonment", however this made him a prime candidate for the marshals to make a call later on.

The Mill Creek Ward History continues - "but was arrested again Nov. 14th 1888 and 10 days later (Nov. 24) sentenced to six months imprisonment for unlawfull cohabitation. He served his term without murmuring and was restored to liberty April 26th 1889." Thus George spent five months of his six month sentence and was given a reduced sentence for good behavior. The actual date of imprisonment was November 26th as recorded in Brienholt's personal journal - "November 27th, three brethren came in last night, brother George Bailey of Mill Creek came in yesterday for second offence U. C., 6 months".[22]

The Third District Court records again give us insights into George's legal entangelments. The records indicate that both George and Elsie were summoned before the Grand Jury with George being indicted a second time on September 25th 1888. The trial took place on the first day of October, this time he pled "Guilty", His bail was set at $1,000 this time with Jesse E. Murphy and Marshall Helm posting bail. These two men were friends of George who were members of the Mill reek Ward, we find reference to them in the letters and Ward records. Without this bail George would have had to be locked up until his trial on the 26th of November. A final warrent for his arrest was issued on November 14th 1888 by U. S. Marshal Frank H. Dyer. The trial was held on the 26th, a verdict of guilty was found. [23]

During this period, 1888, conditions were much better in the Pen. The new brick building was built to house the prisoners with steel 3 tierd cells. During his absence a substantial social system had evolved with Sunday Schools, educational activities, recreation programs of all kinds including debates, even dances, running races, and a much more liberal set of restrictions. Just three days after George's arrival, the Thanksgiving Dinner is spoken of in Brienholt's journal:

"Nov. 29th Thanksgiving Day, cold and cloudy. This morning we had a fine convicts Thanksgiving Day dinner at perhaps 2 o clock consisting of turkey, chicken, bacon, chocolate, potatoes, vegetables, pies, pudding to viz. viz.."

In the diary of Albert Jones, we find reference to the March 18th 1889 Saint Patrick's day celebration. The account describes the jovial festivities which included songs, poems and the wearing of the green. The activities concluded with the following notation. "Three rousing cheers for Ireland were then given, proposed and led by the stentorian voice of George B. Bailey." [24]

It is from this and other accounts that indicate that George was popular with his fellow convicts and actively participated in the social interactions. Many of the brethren kept autograph books, George was no exception. [25] A number of autographs are written in this book given to him by one of his children, the cover page reads "My Father, George B. Bailey, 13 December 1887" On the first page, the following is written by President George Q. Cannon.

Elder George Brown Bailey

Dear Brother:

You are of the pure metal or you would dread the fire of persecution. For wives and children you have twice faced the ordeals of courts and imprisonment in the penitentiary. May this be as a furnace to cleanse and purify your nature and purge it from all dross so that you may be purified to dwell eternally in the presence of the Father and the son.

your fellow prisoner

George Q. Cannon (signed)

Utah Penitentiary

January 26th 1889

From a historical perspective George Q. Cannon effectively was managing the affairs of the Church while imprisoned. He held the position of second councelor in the First Presidency with the aged President John Taylor in hiding in the Manti Temple. The first counselor in the First Presidency was Joseph F. Smith in "retirement" in Hawaii. The fact that a member of the First Presidency was doing his stint in the Pen like the other bishops and priesthood brethren made things more liveable. The journal kept by President Cannon during this period records the many visitors who conducted business with him while imprisoned. President Cannon conducted study sessions and was President of the prison sunday school. Cannon's cell was just a few feet from that of George so they had opportunities to chat and excercise together. George thought highly of President Cannon and was one of many prisoners who signed the following expression to him:

Utah Penitentiary, January 31st 1889

A token of Love and respect to our fellow prisoner Hon. George Q. Cannon

Dear Brother:

As prisoners incarnated for conscience sake and as brethren in the bonds of peace. We deem it a pleasure to acknowledge the kind beneficient influence which has been exerted by your presence here. Although you are removed from family associations, from the many friends who love you, yet their present loss is our gain and profit. Your example has strengthened the weak, encouraged all. We can say as was said of King David "Thou art my Gods chosen." Words are inadequate to express to you our esteem and brotherly affection, but sincerely desire to prove ourselves as true to thee as thou has proven thy constancy to our Fathers work.

The above document was signed by us all, numbering hundreds (J.C.L. Brienholt's Journal)

George's letter of December 29th further tells of his appreciation for the presence of President Cannon and of the quality of the Sunday services during the period. Apostle Francis M. Lyman also was domiciled within a few cells of George. He also wrote in the George's Autograph Book:

Brother George B. Bailey

God bless you for your fidelity in the cause of righteousness. Your Brother and fellow prisoner for conscience sake.

Francis M. Lyman

Jan. 26, 1889

Utah Penitentiary

Cell No. 119

The writer is particularly interested in one of the other entries in the autograph book, because it attests to the warm bond between two men who were sharing experiences while in prison. The prose is worth mentioning, but the writer is more interested in this entry because it is written by J. C. L. Brinholt of Redmond, Utah, his maternal Great Grandfather. George B. Bailey is his Great Grandfather on his father's side.

In Utah Pen

February 4th 1889

Elder George B. Bailey:

Dear Brother: We have found in days gone by, that our Holy covenants are worth living for, by our coming to this prison we have proven that they are worth suffering for, and if needs be, dying for. May the love and affection which we have formed for each other, while prisoners for conscience's sake, be as everlasting as the "principle" for which we suffer.

Your Brother and fellow prisoner, J.C.L. Brienholt

Redmond, Sevier Co.

George Q. Cannon's personal journal provides one of the best glimpses into the every day activities within the prison during George's second internment.

"At 6:30 p.m. all the prisoners, except those engaged in special duties, were requested to come in the building. There are three tiers of cells, one above the other. Those who are in the two lower tiers are soon locked in their cells; but the upper tier where I am is occupied by "trusties" and our cells are not closed till about 8:45 p.m.. Lights are permitted in the cells - candles- as long as the occupants choose I suppose. There is a large lamp burning all night; it throws light in the cells. At nine o'clock p.m. at three taps of the bell, all conversation and noise must cease. - - - before the cells are closed of a night, a guard passes in front of all cells and counts the prisoners, who stand at the door of thier cells. There are two occupants to a cell as a rule, and as there are 120 cells, 240 prisoners can be accommodated.

The cells are iron, 5 feet by 7 feet, and the front including the door is iron lattice work. The prisoners sleep on strips of canvass, stretched lengthwise in the cells, one above another and fastended at each end by leather strips. After being slept in, they assume a trough like form, and are not comfortable the brethren say. - - - When the Brethren arrive there are loud yeals of "fresh fish" heard all over the yard; this being the mode of salutation which all new arrivals at the penitentiary are received. ----

In the corner of every cell there is a recess in which a galvanized slop bucket with a cover stands. On the bucket is painted in large figures the number of the cell. Smells from this recess ascend through a ventilating shaft; but I am told that bad odors come up from the lower cells through this shaft into the upper cells unless the iron door is kept closed. This slop pail is for the night use of the occupants of each cell. At 6:30 a.m. the bell taps and every cell door is opened and from each is born the "dunnigan" as this vessel is called and is carried down outside and emptied. It is then rinsed out and is left in the yard till night. After the prisoners are left to occupy their time, performing their ablutions, walking, as they please till breakfast time. When the taps of the bell are heard the prisoners march Indian file into the dining room, where they stand on each side of the table until the bell taps, then they sit down, there are waiters to each. All who do the work are prisoners. Though not understanding the best way I twice today, had to sit among the "toughs" as they are called. This name is applied to all who are committed for other crimes and offences other than for violating the Edmunds-Tucker law. I am told there are 22 of these in here, either convicted of murder, or awaiting trial for that crime. There are about 100 "Toughs" and to-day about 50 of our people for living with their wives. The "Toughs" manner in which they profane the name of deity is awful to the ears of the Saints.

No knives and forks are permitted to the prisoners. The brethren have improvised knives out of spoon handles and other scraps of metal they have got hold of and made wooden forks. Spoons are permitted. Breakfast this morning consisted of meat swimming in soup gravy in a tin plate, with some small potatoes in their jackets and about two thick slices of bread. Coffee is served to each, and if milk or sugar is used the prisoner must furnish it. --- Dinner was about as breakfast except that we had a slice of corned beef. At supper, at 5 p.m., we had a plate of mush and tea and bread. --

When a visitor comes with permission to see a convict the turnkey outside informs the guard on the walls who shouts the name aloud. This is taken up by the convicts and the whole place resounds with the name of the person desired. If more than one is asked for then all the names are called out. There is a line plainly marked in the yard which is called "the dead line". This must be crossed in the face of a guard on the wall armed with a Winchester rifle. The rule is for the convict, who crosses the dead line to go to the gate, to throw up his hand as a signal to the guard on the wall. The gate is opened from the outside. When the convic whose name has been called opens the gate, he finds himself between that and the outside gate. They are three or four feet apart. Then the Janitor opens the outside gate and the prisoner emerges into the passage way. There is still another gate to pass through; but in the daytime it stands open. In a small wooden building the visitor sits awaiting. All conversation must be in the hearing of a guard. No writing must pass without an examination of it. Nothing is permitted to be carried in without undergoing scrutiny. -----
Our dinner had an addition to-day in the shape of bean soup. Beans of some form are served every Sunday. At 3 p.m. a religious service held; a Swedish minister did the preaching. He read his discourse from MS. I am told it was much better than the average discourse from the ministers, Methodist and Espicopalian, who come here. The subject was the resurrection of the Savior. The singing was by a choir, composed with one exception, of our people, and was led by Bro. Lorenzo Waldron. The organ was played by a colored boy who is sent here for rape.

All prisoners committed to the United States Penintentiary during the 1880s were required to abide by the established rules of the prison. When they entered the institution they were shaved of their beards and dressed in stripes. The men were hardly recognized by their own wives when visiting and young children visiting the prison with their mothers often failed to recognize their fathers. This of course caused many heart aches.[27]

Other foods were allowed the inmates if they could get someone on the outside to bring it in to them. From George's letters, for a period he was a purveyor of honey to the inmates; however, economically this did not work out because he gleaned only $1.50 for his efforts. It would appear from his letters that the Relief Society from the Mill Creek Ward provided extra food and clothes for the cohabs. George indicates that he would distribute goods brought in which was given to those who did not have families or friends in the area to arrange for the extra foods such as milk, butter, honey, sugar and candy. Despite a lack of variety, the prisoners had plenty to eat but were allowed only eight to ten minutes for each meal, most gained weight from the food and lack of exercise. The following letters were written during this internment and provide an account of prison life and thoughts shared with his family:

1. Hair chains braided from the hair of those whom he loved. Very common in those days. They were used as watch chains, however in this case an engraved medal was attached.

2 "The diploma", for what? Somehow connected to sister Taylor, which was valued with a pea hen, (the framing of the diploma?)

3 He must have had visitors who were allowed to climb up on the wall and view the prisoners in the yard below. The rules forbade any recognition or communication. From page 3 it must have been George, Victoria, Reuben and Mother. (Young or Bailey?)

4 One letter each week only could be sent.

5 George his son who was living in Salina?

6 The families were allowed to supplement the food available from the prison, in this case butter.

7 The first of a coded message to Elizabeth when encoded read "---little while. I miss my partner at night for I sleep alone".

8 Carpet apparently for the iron floor of the cell.

9 George must have supplied the honey for those without family support who lived some distance away.

10 The Ward Relief Society made available these items.

11 The Relief Society must have had a compasionate service project and made quilts.

12 R.J.B. Ruben Josiah Bailey

13 Mrs. Jack may have been a code name for Elsie.

14 Special festive programs were presented sometimes from Salt Lake City groups but in this case it is indicated that the prisoners provided thier own program George participating.

15 This is a reference to George Q. Cannon a member of the First Presidency only three cells away from George. 16

12 crocusses bulbs - his love of flowers and his green thumb to liven the cell.

17 The prison must have been very chilly with a poor heating system, George was older by this time and joint problems from the cold were being manifested in his system. The

pains and aches also could have been related to deficiencies from the prison food.

18 Reubin Josiah & Alice Elmina

19 A hint at depression and homesickness.

20 Encoded to read "I often think of you in the night time.

21 Old English phrase for "courage"

22 Cherry - their horse?

23 "Mrs. Jack" Elsie?

24 He must have lent his pants, Brother Nokes must have been threadbare.

25 "Life in the Pen" what is ment? "I have written the names of my choice on some" is this reference to the photos taken of his fellow inmates, we know the family had copies,however George missed the photo seating by several days and is not in these photos.

26 W. Hill is another "Millcreeker" whom George worked with in the Ward.

27 8th, 10th, and 15th, The 8th of Feb. was George and Elsie's anniversary, the 10th was Elizabeth and George's and the 15th was his birthday.

28 This narrative appears to be for the eyes of the warden in effect he is saying that he will obey the laws and not cohabit with Elsie again, however after being released he fathered one more child, Earl Fredrick.

29 You and you alone" Again for the eyes of the censor which was not true at all.

30 They must have done his laundry Elsie and Heber bringing it to him.

31 Elsie must have gone to Salina and spent the summer of 88 to avoid the marshals, so as not to testify against him. This must have been the period when he was arrested and not imprisoned. Griffon is his son in law, married to Ellen.

32 This is the second reference to the selling of books, once selling them in the pen and now Ellen and Griffon were selling them in Salina. What books were they? -he will sell them when he gets out?

33 J. Carlisle, another close friend a "Millcreeker".

34 This letter of the 22nd was sent to Salina, Elizabeth and Alice went there to be with Ellen and Elizabeth.



After being released, on April 26th 1889, one month early for good behavior, George went back to life at Mill Creek where he continued in his bee culture and care of the orchards. From this period on, the activities of the U. S. Marshals were somewhat diminished. One additional child, Earl Fredrick was fostered with Elsie which would indicate that George continued to disobey the law nor did he forsake his second family.

A year or so after his release, the family history indicates the following tragic event "Elsie met a man named Frank Dell Delong after plural marriage had been discontinued. One evening George went down to see Elsie and the children and found Delong there. He gave Elsie the choice of him and the children or Delong. She chose Frank Delong. George stayed with the children that night. The next morning he took them up to his home and Elizabeth took care of them. Elsie and Delong went to Idaho, where, when George died, Elsie took her children to live with her, all except the second youngest Israel who elected not to leave, so he was cared for by Elizabeth until he grew up and was married." Later Israel and his young family moved to the Idaho Falls area to be near his mother and family.

Imagine George's feelings, one full year in the penitentiary enduring untold hardships and financial loss for conscience sake, only to have his young wife leave for another. In retrospect, it appears that Elsie was not at all happy to be living in the smaller adobie house and raising her family in fear of further troubles with the law. From Elsie's perspective, the future did not look bright. She came to a new land at the age of thirteen, had never experienced an opportunity to meet and select a young man of her choice. Her marriage in the endowment house must have been a convenience arrangement. She had borne seven fine children, had been before the courts several times, had lost two children to diptheria, paid government spotters all about, married to a man nineteen years her senior not known for his docile nature, what a state of despair she must have been in!

Elsie's departure must have raised havoc within the Bailey household. Elsie had been a good mother, loved dearly by her children, and then she was gone. Many tears must have been shed.

It is clear that the children suffered along with and perhaps even more than those sent to prison, Deep feelings must have been expressed. How did the mothers explain father's absence while away to the pen? How could they understand the political fervor in Washington and the Protestant church pressures from the East? How could the Bailey children understand the happenings and circumstances that led to Elsie's absence? Martha Sonntag Bradley writes that "it is - - difficult to evaluate the effects of the conflict on the children involved, the "innocent bystanders" who were raised in the atmosphere of persecution, secrecy, and hatred of the crusade to end polygamy.[28]

Elizabeth, having raised one family, took charge and made Elsie's family a part of her household. George, as would be expected, expressed resentment of he events that transpired until his death several years later. The history leads one to believe that George lost his zest for life because of the tragic events. In retrospect, however, he was not a well man following his final internment. From the family accounts, he well could have been suffering from an advanced case of emphysema.

Elsie was still a comparatively young woman in her mid thirties, a full life yet to live, with no future in sight by staying with George. It was thought that she herself could well be sent to prison for George's visitations,. As discussed earlier, George and she both could be prosecuted for the very appearance of living together. The United States Government's solution to the polygamy problem in Utah was nothing less than total abandonment of plural wives and children and had established a court system and effective network to assure observance to the law. Frank Delong offered Elsie a viable solution to her dilemma. One can chance to look with disfavor upon Elsie's actions, however, when viewed from all sides, it is easy to see how she came to her decision to go. A conflict to be sure existed between the ecclesiastical laws of Celestial Marriage and those imposed upon the Saints by the courts.

This short biographical sketch of George Bailey's internment has a secondary purpose, that of placing into perspective the conditions and experiences of others deeply involved within the Bailey family. Elizabeth, the children and especially Elsie were also victims of the unjust laws imposed upon the Saints of the time.

[1] Grow, Stewart L. "A Study of the Utah Commission 1882-1886. PHD Thesis, University of Utah, 1954

[2] Roberts, B. H., History of the Church, Vol. 6, p.43. Deseret press

[3] Ibid,

[4] Bradley, Martha Sonntag, Utah Historical Quarterly, 1983, "Hide and Seek":Children on the Underground, p. 135

[5] Roberts, History of the Church, Vol. 6, p. 20[6] Madsen, Truman G., Defender of the Faith, The B. H. Roberts Story, p. 184 Bookcraft, Salt Lake City Utah, 1980

[7] Roberts, History of the Church, Vol. 6, p. 73[8] Deseret News, Sept. 23, 1885, Salt Lake City, Utah

[9] Roberts, B. H. History of the Church Vol. 6, p. 114

[10] The Life of Reuben Bailey, Bailey Family Records.

[11] History of Mill Creek, Andrew Jenson, LDS Church Historian, Mill Creek Ward History, LDS Church Historians Office, Salt Lake City, Utah

[12] Hill, James. B. "History of the Utah State Penitentiary" Masters Thesus, BYU 1952

[13] Charles L. Walker's Diary, p.164 Provo Utah, Brigham Young University Library

[14] Black, Joseph Smith, Autobiography, LDS Church Archives, Church Historians Office, Salt Lake City, Utah

[15] Nicholson, John, The Martyrdom of Joseph Standing, Deseret News Press, 1886 (copy enclosed)

[16] Bashore, Melvin L. Life Behind Bars: Mormon Cohabs of the 1880s, Utah State Historical Quarterly, p. 25

[17] Ibid

[18] Clawson, Rudger, Diary, Archives of the Church of Jesus Christ of LatterDay Saints, Church Historian's Office, Salt Lake City, Utah.s

[19] Foulger, Herbert J. Diary, Provo Utah, Brigham Young University Library

[20] Ibid

[21] History of Mill Creek, Andrew Jenson

[22] Brienholt, J. C. L., Journal, Archives of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, Church Histo

Owner/SourceGary Stay
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